Bonsai art came from Japan and China. Initially, miniature trees were grown by Buddhist monks, but over time, an unusual hobby passed into the category of secular. Nowadays, fans of tiny firs, pines and lindens are found all over the world, while planting trees is possible by seed.
Popular types of trees for growing
Literally translated, bonsai art means "growing in a tray." It allows you to get smaller copies of ordinary trees, conifers and deciduous due to pruning, pruning shoots, the use of a substrate poor in mineral substances. To create a unique garden of dwarf crops from 2 to 110 cm high, trees with long growth are used.
Bonsai tree will be a unique decoration of any room
There are several groups of plants that can be grown in miniature:
- The lowest plants are 9 to 20 cm tall. This is juniper, spruce, irga.
- 20-30 cm high. Barberry, pine, maple are suitable.
- Reaching 30-70 cm. This is an ordinary pine, birch, hazel.
- Trees up to 60-100 cm. Choose oak, larch, black pine.
- The highest representatives, more than 100 cm. In this way, acacia, chestnuts, plane trees are grown.
Note! You can create at home original green corners where bonsai trees will harmoniously combine with lushly blooming roses or violets.
Among the best plants for seed bonsai is a pepper tree or zanctoxylum, an unpretentious evergreen crop with dark bark and large cirrus leaves that produce a pleasant aroma. Well suited for creating living works of art.
A tiny variation of the olive tree also looks original, it is from it that it is recommended that beginners begin to work. The tree has an unusual gray bark, the flowering period occurs at the end of summer - the beginning of autumn.
You can grow bonsai from almost any tree
Processing and germination rules
Bonsai seeds can be processed for subsequent germination in several ways. Preparing seeds for germination is called stratification.
The method is chosen when the bonsai seeds need to be ripened. It is relevant for thuja, pine, blue spruce. The step-by-step sequence of actions is as follows:
- Soaking seeds in warm water for 24 hours.
- Move the seed to the refrigerator. The exposure time to cold depends on the variety. For southern wood species it lasts about 60 days, for northern - up to six months.
Thus, it is possible to create a temperature drop similar to what is happening in the natural environment.
Instead of a refrigerator, bonsai seed can be placed in cold soil, such as perlite or wet sand. After this, the containers are transferred to a cool, but well-ventilated room, for example, a balcony.
Note! The use of organic soils can cause bacteria to become infected with seeds and mold, therefore it is better to refuse them.
Checking the seeds is carried out twice a month, rotten and spoiled discarded, hatching should be planted immediately.
Proper stratification is the guarantee that you can grow a beautiful miniature tree
The main goal of the procedure is the awakening of seeds for bonsai. The required mode is humidity 70%, temperature - +20 ℃. It is carried out in several ways:
- Seeds are placed between layers of moist tissue and placed in a bright place where sprouts will appear.
- Instead of wipes, it is permissible to use a wet sponge or coconut substrate.
To create a greenhouse effect, the structure is covered with a film.
Thus, preplant planting of cedar and maple seeds, sakura and other crops with a long growth cycle is carried out. Such stratification involves alternating effects of cold and heat. At the first stage, seeds for bonsai are placed in cold water or taken out in a cool room. And just before landing - in a warm liquid. This allows you to quickly germinate the seeds.
Growing bonsai from seeds is an art, but if you wish, everyone can master it
Soil and container for growing bonsai
Considering how to grow a bonsai from seeds at home, it is impossible to ignore the rules of soil selection. The most preferred option is coarse sand, previously calcined in the oven. Do it like this:
- Sand is washed in several waters.
- Pour a thin layer on a baking sheet.
- Put in the oven for 30 minutes at a temperature of 180 ℃.
To plant bonsai plants, clay granulate that retains moisture well is suitable. Humus is also used for planting; heather soil of high acidity is especially good.
For conifers, a little shredded needles of the selected plant are added to the soil. The substrate itself is a mixture in equal amounts of leafy soil, sand and humus. Deciduous trees grow best on burnt clay mixed with lava and pumice. Fruit crops feel comfortable in the composition of leaf soil and compost, taken in a 1: 1 ratio.
Note! To reduce humidity and prevent waterlogging, a drainage layer is required.
Before planting bonsai seeds, you must select a pot. Coniferous species are suitable for flat wide models, and for trees with a curved crown - oval or round. If the plant has a wide powerful trunk, then they acquire a deep rectangular capacity for it. Representatives of flora with an open root system will suit a narrow but deep container.
The material for the pot can be anything: ceramics, clay, glass, even wood. But it is better to refuse cheap plastic - it does not differ in long term of life, and bonsai trees negatively perceive transplantation.
Color and decoration depend on the will of the owner, but do not buy a richly decorated vessel - it will distract attention from the living composition. The right choice for bonsai is a light tank. The crops are planted in dark brown, black, even pink pots.
The bonsai tree pot may have an unusual shape
Features of sowing seeds and plant care
Landing is carried out in spring or summer, it is also allowed in the first autumn month. A substrate is poured into the selected container so that approximately 2.5 cm remains to the edge. Then, the germinated seeds are split into prepared soil in a row. They are sprinkled with a thin layer of sand, then crushed with a wooden circle and carefully irrigated.
Next, the container is covered with a film or bag and transferred to a dark place (temperature should not be higher than +14 ℃).
Note! Every day, the film needs to be removed for a few minutes to air. The soil should always be moist, but not swampy.
After the appearance of the shoots, the film is removed, and the pots are mixed in a lighted place, under a lamp or on a windowsill. The formation of seedlings - removal of 2/3 of the main root - is carried out in 2-3 months. When the height of the bonsai trunk reached 10 cm, the trees are planted in separate containers and begin to form a crown.
Proper planting is a guarantee that the tree will grow strong, but tiny
Features of agricultural technology of Japanese and red maple
The collection of bonsai seeds begins in the fall, the duration of the stratification is 120 days. Planting seeds should be in April or early May.
Note! To accelerate the hatching of seeds, they are soaked for 48 hours in hydrogen peroxide. This will protect them from mold and disease.
Maple is good in that it can have leaves of various colors, not only the usual green, red or yellow, but also non-standard blue, blue, purple tones.
The basic rules for growing maple in bonsai:
- The place is chosen bright, but protected from direct sunlight.
- The plant may die if the thermometer drops below the mark - +5 ℃.
- Watering should be moderate, but regular; drying of the soil should not be allowed. In summer heat it is better to irrigate the land twice a day - in the morning and in the evening.
- New branches are pruned throughout the year, but old shoots can only be formed in autumn or spring.
Note! Maple can not be fed in the winter.
Features agricultural technology bonsai of lemon
Seeds do not need stratification, but should be taken from ripe citrus. To increase the chances of germination, several seeds are planted simultaneously. For a lemon, a drainage layer of at least 1.5-2 cm is required. The seeds are laid to a depth of 1.5 cm. After sowing, the pot is covered with a plastic bag and put away in a room with a temperature of +18 ℃.
After emergence, the film is removed, and the plant is placed in a bright place. Subsequent care includes watering, top dressing. Use complexes for indoor plants in half dosage.
Lemon bonsai - an amazing plant, a real home decoration
Features of agricultural technology of cedar
Japanese cedar is an evergreen classic of oriental art. A tiny tree looks very interesting and will become a worthy decoration of a home garden, decorated in Chinese style.
Cedar seeds germinate without problems, but they react very negatively to excessive amounts of water. To grow a cedar, you should perform the following actions:
- Soak the seeds in warm water for a day.
- Dry the seeds completely.
- Put them in the sun for 15 minutes.
- Put in a plastic zip bag, tightly close and put in the refrigerator for a month.
- After the appearance of sprouts, land in the ground.
- Water carefully.
- It should not be covered with a film, but it is important to maintain a constant humidity of the substrate.
Many are interested in how much bonsai grows. It all depends on the species and variety of wood. For example, Lebanese cedar in 10 years will grow by only 10 cm.
Bonsai cedar looks very elegant and unusual
Features of agricultural technology of Japanese pine
Looks very good white Japanese pine grown using bonsai technology. Seeds begin to germinate in early spring, if they are fresh, then the sprouts will appear very quickly. The method of cold stratification is used. A pine tree needs a bright place, otherwise the needles will be dull and weak.
Note! Excessive soil moisture is the cause of root rot. Watering should be careful.
Watering, top dressing, wintering
Tiny trees are grown in small pots, so watering should be done very carefully. Two methods are used:
- Irrigation. Moisturizing the soil from a small watering can with a thin nose.
- Immersion. It is important that there are drainage holes in the bottom of the pot. A container with a plant is immersed in a basin filled with water for 5-10 minutes.
Note! For irrigation suitable rainwater or tap water, settled for at least 48 hours.
Mineral complexes enriched with nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus are used for top dressing. You can take fertilizers for indoor plants, but at a concentration of 50%, this will prevent excessive growth of shoots and foliage. Feeding rules:
- For the summer period, the potassium content is reduced.
- In spring and autumn, compounds rich in nitrogen and phosphorus are chosen.
Preparing for winter involves cleansing the plant from affected and dried shoots, destroying pests. Pots moves to a bright place, protected from drafts and blowing.
Bonsai Garden is a dream that can come true. A variety of coniferous, deciduous and even fruit trees in miniature can be grown from seeds, the main thing is to follow the recommendations.