Petunia is a perennial from the nightshade family. The distribution area includes Uruguay, Paraguay, Argentina, Bolivia. Some species grow in North America.
In total, about 40 varieties of petunia are isolated. Among them there are both herbaceous and semi-shrub plants. The first cultural varieties were bred in the XVIII century.
Petunia can be annual and perennial. The distinctive features of the plant include:
- creeping and erect stems. They are distinguished by densely branching;
- shoots of different sizes, depending on the species. Covered with glandular and simple hairs, painted in grassy color. They have a rounded shape;
- diverse leaves of dark green color. The plates are sessile, pubescent, regular and whole-edge. Their length is 5-12 cm;
- large flowers. Most often they are single. On the stalks there are terry or simple-looking corollas of a funnel-shaped form;
- fetus. In the form of a double leaf box. It contains small seeds.
Petunia is classified according to height. Bushes are low (no more than 30 cm) and high (30-70 cm). The color can be varied: purple, purple, white, pink, pale red and blue. Flowers are decorated with dark veins, a bright edging of a different shade. Bushy multi-flowered petunias
Garden petunia was the result of breeding of wild species. Flowering period since mid-summer. With proper care, it will last until the first frost. In the middle lane, perennials are grown as an annual crop.
Types and varieties of petunias
Petunia has 3 varieties:
- hybrid (bush);
Hybrid petunia is a branchy bush plant. Its height reaches 70 cm. To achieve maximum splendor, it is not recommended to break off stepsons. Pink Sky, Picoti and Tiumph
The diameter of the corollas varies between 12-15 cm. A pleasant aroma comes from petunia during flowering.
|Multi-flowered||It is characterized by unpretentiousness, compactness and splendor of the bush. The flowering is plentiful, corollas can have different colors. Height is from 30 to 40 cm.||Snowball||Snow-white, simple.||Up to 5.|
|Fantasy||Pink, red, white, raspberry, blue-violet.|
|Mirage||Pink, lilac, raspberry, violet.||6 to 9|
|Large flowered||They are characterized by high decorativeness. Plants are more demanding on growing conditions. The flowers are large and spectacular. These species are most often planted in pots, on a balcony or terrace. Not higher than 30 cm.||Triumph||Varied.||5 to 15.|
|Pink sky||Bright pink.|
|Picoti||Blue and white, raspberry, red.|
|Floribunda||An intermediate group characterized by abundant flowering, unpretentiousness and beauty.||Sonia||The colors are raspberries, fiery, burgundy, pale purple, white. Decorated with a lighter border and star.||Does not exceed 15.|
|Celebrity||Can be monophonic, two-color and three-color.|
Ampel species are distinguished by long shoots growing down. Plants need warmth, regular hydration and nutrition.
These petunias are used as decorative decorations for walls and balconies. They are quite resistant to adverse weather conditions.
|Ramblin||Abundant flowering, erect stems. Side shoots no longer than 80-90 cm.||Violet, snow-white, lavender, dark pink, blue, salmon, red, peach.||7 to 8|
|Conchita||In appearance, the corollas resemble a caliberhoa.||Various.||Up to 5.|
|Wave||The stems reach 120 cm.||Pink, purple, blue, purple.||Not more than 7.|
|Tumbelin||Semi-ampere, double flowers. During flowering, a rounded cap is formed. The aroma is strong and pleasant.||Lavender colors, lilac, rich raspberry, with red stripes on a pink background, dark purple, cherry.||6 to 7.|
|Avalanche||Branching bushes, long flowering period. The length of the shoots is 70 cm.||White, blue, orange.||To 9.|
|Opera Suprim||A lush bushy plant, the shoots of which reach a length of 100 cm.||Pink, blue, white, raspberry.||Does not exceed 5.|
Cascading petunia is often confused with ampelous. In the list of differences, the direction of growth, length and thickness of shoots. Tornado, Burgundy, Orchid Mist
First they grow up, and then fall down.
|Orchid Mist||Large-flowered, gives white-pink terry whisks.|
|Pirouette||Unpretentious, the color of the flowers can be different.|
|Burgundy||During flowering, bushes are covered with densely blue and purple corollas.|
|Gioconda||The diameter of the inflorescences does not exceed 6 cm. They can be scarlet, white, orange, pink and purple.|
|Tornado||Long shoots (from 100 cm), bright large flowers.|
If the gardener follows the correct algorithm, planting and caring for the specified garden crop will not require much effort. Gioconda Orange and Purl Pirouette Terry
Petunia is an unpretentious plant. Its resistance to heat largely depends on varietal characteristics. Small-flowered varieties are watered less often than large-flowered ones. Water needs to be poured under the root, otherwise delicate corollas and leaf blades will suffer. Loosening and weeding is recommended only on the next day.
To prolong the flowering period, petunia must be fed according to a predetermined schedule.
When compiling it, it is necessary to take into account the initial state of the soil.
- Fertilize for the first time a week after planting.
- The second and all subsequent ones - every 10-14 days.
Petunia needs complex mixtures, characterized by a high concentration of potassium.
Among organic fertilizers, preference should be given to infusion of mullein and humic compounds.
Dates and features of planting petunias
Most gardeners plant petunias in mid-March. The lack of daylight is compensated by fitolamps. The amount of seed is determined, given the low germination.
The soil should be loose and light. Its composition must include turf soil, rotted humus, sand and peat.
Seedling growing technology
The procedure is quite simple:
- The soil mixture is poured into a previously prepared container. The substrate is pre-sieved.
- The day before planting, the soil is well moistened with a spray gun.
- Seeds purchased or independently harvested are planted.
- Cover the container with glass or plastic wrap.
- Place the box and peat pots (depending on where the crop was planted) in a room with an air temperature of at least +20 ° C.
- To prevent condensation, seedlings should be regularly ventilated.
- Mandatory measures include moderate watering and disinfecting solution treatment. To prepare the latter, potassium permanganate is used.
- After 4 true leaves occur, they pick. Seedlings are most often placed in peat or plastic pots. After the procedure, plants need to be watered.
- To protect seedlings, lutrasil and paper sheets are used.
- For top dressing, take such complex formulations as Mortar, Kemira and Nitrofoska. 25-35 g are dissolved in 10 l of water.
Flowering begins 2-3 months after the planting of seedlings in open ground.
1-2 weeks before this event, hardening of petunias begins.
The site should be illuminated and protected from the wind. The flowerbed can be located near the fence or wall of the building. Petunias will look good near tall perennials. They emphasize their beauty and prevent damage to delicate petals and leaves.
Petunia needs fertile soil characterized by a slightly acidic or neutral reaction. Soil should be distinguished by a high humus content and loose structure. The best options include light loam. If the soil is too heavy, sand and humus must be added to it. Sandy ground will require turf land and rotted manure.
Using the last ingredient can lead to the development of fungal ailments. If you plan to land in flowerpots and planters, be sure to prepare the soil mixture of turf land, peat, sand and humus. To preserve moisture, a hydrogel is included in the list of components.
Gardening culture needs careful care. The list of agricultural activities is quite extensive. It includes watering, loosening, fertilizing, weeding weeds. Water should be warm and settled.
Soil should be moistened in the evening. Feed the plant twice a month. During flowering, fertilize seedlings with complexes containing potassium and phosphorus. Ready-made fertilizers can be purchased at the flower shop.
Ampel and terry petunias are propagated by cuttings. For this, the apical stems of the plant are used, on which there are from 4 to 6 true leaves. After separating the cuttings, it is necessary to tear off the lower ones and shorten the upper leaf blades. To achieve rooting, apply soil mixture for seedlings.
For reproduction, seeds are often used. Seeds can be purchased at the store or collected independently. The last stage is carried out only after the seeds have ripened. Formation takes about 8 weeks. The bushes that were selected for harvesting are noted during the flowering period. If the gardener is guided by all the rules of agricultural technology, the seeds will retain their germination until 3-4 years.
Read an article about breeding petunias through seeds.
Pests and diseases
If mistakes were made during the cultivation of petunias, the plant may suffer from diseases and parasites.
|Powdery mildew||A whitish coating on the stems, leaves and shoots.||Excessive humidity, improper watering,|
adverse weather conditions.
|Removing affected parts, planting bushes that are too densely planted. Preventive treatment with fungicides.|
|Blackleg||Buntings in black and brown. Subsequently, the shrubs dry out.||Non-compliance with the temperature regime, waterlogging.||There is no effective treatment. To prevent the occurrence of an ailment, the soil should be loosened regularly, sprinkled with wood ash and sand. To enhance the beneficial effect, the plants are treated with a weak solution of potassium permanganate.|
|Late blight||Rotting of the lower part of shoots and stem.||General weakening of seedlings, a sharp cooling.||Spraying with Ridomil and Profit. Prevention is carried out through whey and garlic infusions.|
Lush foliage and bright corollas of petunias often attract insects.
|Pest||Signs||Methods of struggle|
|Whitefly||General weakening of the plant, yellowing of the green mass.||Spraying Actara.|
|Spider mite||The bushes are entangled in a web.||Treatment with Apollo and Neoron.|
|Aphid||Plaque on various parts of the plant, shedding buds. Twisting leaves, changing their colors.||Use Fufanon and Aktara.|
|Slug||Marked damage to leaves, stems and shoots.||Sprinkling soil Sludge, superphosphate, mustard powder.|
Mr. Summer resident advises: how to save a petunia bush in winter
Gardening is not recommended to be left in the ground during the cold season. The plant is removed from the soil in mid-October. The next step is to eliminate all shoots. A pot with transplanted petunia is placed in a cool room. Watering should be rare and moderate. Overmoistening will provoke rotting of the root system. In February, containers should be brought into a warm room. The resulting cuttings can subsequently be used for propagation.
Today, these hybrids are planted as balcony and potted crops. Bright annuals are often grown in personal plots. The popularity of petunias is due to its decorativeness and unpretentiousness. Additional benefits include a long flowering period. Petunia harmonizes well with other garden crops.