Phalaenopsis is a decorative flower of the Orchid family. Homeland - Southeast Asia and northeast Australia.
Phalaenopsis is an epiphytic herbaceous shrub. Large leaves turn into thick strong roots, which have features:
- contain chlorophyll;
- have a spongy structure;
- covered with a wax film;
- participate in photosynthesis;
- serve as a support;
- supply nutrients;
- turn green when saturated with moisture.
In the spring-autumn season, peduncles appear from the sinuses of fleshy oval-shaped leaves. Their structure depends on the species. They are long, short, straight, curved, branched, hanging.
In the growing season, 1-3 leaves grow on the shoot. They persist for several years. As new foliage forms, the old dies. The length depends on the variety of phalaenopsis - 0.2-1 m. Color: light green, dark green, spotty.
On one plant, 5-60 flowers are formed with a diameter of 2-15 cm. In shape, pattern on the petals, they resemble a butterfly. There are round, star-shaped flowers. The natural color of Phalaenopsis is white.
Types of Phalaenopsis
|Amabilis||Double-rowed leaves of dark green color. A curved peduncle 1.5 m high. The most profitable variety for crossbreeding. Has a delicate aroma.||October - March.|
|Chillerian||Silvery flat roots with a pink tip. It affects the sheer size of the speckled leaves. At the same time, up to 200 light pink lilac flowers with a pleasant smell are formed.||May - February.|
The peak of active flowering is the winter months.
|Stewart||A tall plant with a curved peduncle, shiny white roots, variegated leaves, white petals. At the same time, up to 60 buds are revealed.||January March|
|Giant||Tall drooping peduncles with many buds. Petals of various colors. Rigid malachite leaves are covered with light specks. In comfortable conditions, blooms year-round.||Constantly.|
|Olenorogy||Small golden red flowers with brown spots. The structure is similar to deer horns. In the places of formation of the kidneys, growths resembling a crest are formed.||All year round.|
|Hieroglyphic||Leaves and peduncles of green color. White wax petals show strokes similar to hieroglyphs. It has a pleasant smell.||Duration - 30 days.|
|Parisha||Milky white variety with a fruity aroma. The short stem is covered with leaves. The flower is a wide lip with a purple color in the middle.||Continuous.|
|Luddeman||Mini variety with salad leaves in the shape of an ellipse. Adult specimens bloom alternately year-round. Dense petals are smaller than the sepals. On a white background are purple, chestnut, light purple touches. Pronounced pleasant aroma.||Permanent.|
|Sander||The most expensive variety. High drooping stems are decorated with a large number of flowers of various colors.||Year-round.|
The peak of activity is spring - summer.
|Ambonsky||3-5 oval leaves. Peduncles lengthen annually. Petals of variegated shades - against a light background, transverse stripes of brick color.||Constant flowering.|
The phase of greatest activity is summer.
|Pink||Miniature variety with white, dairy, pink flowers. Leaves from the bottom have a reddish hue.||All year round.|
|Horse||Short stalk with paired dark green leaves. Pastel pink, purple flowers.||5 months.|
|Mini Mark "Maria Teresa"||White flowers with orange, bright yellow, brown specks. In the spring, in the fall.||3 months.|
|Amsterdam Jordan||A rare variety. Pink petals adorn small dark spots. Lip cherry color.||All year round.|
|Parameter||The necessary conditions|
|Light temperature||Placed on the west, east windows. 12 hour lighting. Periodic rotation of the pot (once per decade) relative to the light source. During budding, the plant is not disturbed. Content at normal room temperature:|
|Watering, humidity||Regular watering after complete drying of the soil by immersion. The tank is filled with settling water. Immerse the flower pot for 30 minutes. Then put on a pallet to remove excess moisture through the bottom holes. The procedure is carried out once a decade.|
Humidity - 40%. Phalaenopsis is not sprayed. Periodically, the flower is placed under a shower, then the leaves are wiped dry, left for 45 minutes in a dark place.
Use growth activators according to the attached instructions.
Pot, soil, transplant
The soil is prepared from a mixture of bark of coniferous trees, charcoal, sphagnum moss, shells. Drainage layer - small pebbles, expanded clay, foam balls. A little peat is added to maintain the acidity of the substrate. To prevent mold, the bark is boiled and dried before use.
- transparent walls - light entering the root system;
- perforation - bottom holes contribute to good aeration.
A transplant is carried out in 2 cases:
- soil mixture replacement - every 3 years;
- strong growth of roots.
The procedure is performed after flowering. Step-by-step instructions for transplanting phanelopsis:
- soak the pot with the plant for half an hour;
- take out of the ground;
- free the roots from the substrate, remove the sick;
- put drainage on the bottom of a new pot, larger in volume, on top - a soil mixture for orchids;
- place the flower in the center, fill the voids with a substrate;
- choose a place with high humidity;
- water after 3 days.
Duration 2-6 months. The plant can bloom numerous flowers twice a year. This is affected by the condition of the bush, the conditions of detention.
After withering, the old drying arrow is removed. The green peduncle is cut to a branching height, put in water for the appearance of children. Further they are used for reproduction.
The reasons for the lack of flowering:
- insufficient lighting;
- exhaustive search with fertilizers containing nitrogen;
- plant fatigue.
Having identified the decisive reason, it is eliminated by changing the conditions of detention. Stimulate flowering watering with the preparations of Bud, Ovary, lowering the night temperature.
Slowed growth, decreased metabolic rate. The plant is more resistant to cold, drought. At this time, lower the temperature, reduce watering, cancel feeding.
At the end of flowering, the old, withered arrow is cut off above the third bud.
The right choice of phalaenopsis
You should buy a healthy flower with a developed root system, elastic shiny leaves. Moss should not be present in the phalaenopsis pot. An important feature of orchids is that some of the roots are in the air, protruding from the soil surface.
After the store, the plant stands in a packaged form for a day. The flower is adapted to home conditions:
- inspection of leaves, roots, flowers - removal of dry, damaged parts;
- watering by usual immersion;
- weekly wrapping pots with sphagnum bandage plants to identify existing pests;
- removal of dust, white plaque from leaves with a cotton pad moistened with warm water;
- spraying of a peduncle.
Healthy, processed plants are exposed on the windowsill.
Only high-quality plants are used, without signs of disease. Vegetative method - propagation of phalaenopsis by side shoots. They are formed at the root outlet, on the peduncle. In most cases, their appearance is caused artificially.
At the base of the flowering arrow, a sleeping kidney is selected, cover scales are removed from it with tweezers. They are treated with a growth stimulant - aloe juice, Epin, Kornevin. To create a greenhouse effect, the peduncle is covered with a plastic bag. The first leaves appear after 60 days. After a month, roots form.
The baby is separated from the mother plant, dried for a day. The substrate for planting is selected in small fractions.
To root the seedlings create greenhouse conditions - cover with a plastic cap. Suitable temperature for survival is + 25 ° C.
Another method of vegetative propagation is dividing the stem into parts:
- cut across;
- section along the axis;
- combined separation.
Slices are treated with cinnamon, kidneys with cytokinin paste, dried, placed in a liquid with a crushed tablet of activated carbon. Water is changed weekly, fertilizer is added - Forte for orchids.
Six months later, a young peduncle appears on the rooted cuttings. He is ready to land on the substrate.
Diseases and Pests
Improper care of phalaenopsis leads to the occurrence of diseases, the appearance of pests.
|Manifestation||Disease / pest||Remedial measures|
|Dark spots, softening of leaves. Loss of root elasticity.||Bacterial spotting||Removal of lesions. Cauterization by iodine, treatment with crushed charcoal or activated carbon. In advanced cases, the use of fungicides - Ridomil, Fitosporin.|
|The appearance of large white spots on the leaves, affecting the entire plate over time.||Hives||Change in growing conditions: decrease in humidity, increase in temperature, optimization of the ventilation mode.|
|The appearance of dark brown spots on the petals, leading to wilting of the flower. At the base of young stems, a gray coating is noticeable. The spread of infection is affected by increased humidity.||Botritis||Creating favorable conditions. Treatment with bactericidal agents - copper sulfate, foundationazole, HOM.|
|The appearance of redness on the roots, stems. In places, there are depressed isthmuses. Over time, the red areas darken, deposits of white, pink, and purple spores form on them. There is a massive yellowing of old leaves, loss of elasticity of young shoots. The plant dies.||Fusarium||Treatment is possible only in the early stages:|
Duration of quarantine is 20 days. The absence of signs of recovery indicates the destruction of the plant, as non-viable.
|Foliage turns yellow, wilts, flies around.||Mealybug||Soap solution.|
|The formation on the leaves of a thin shiny mesh of steel color.||Spider mite||By spraying with a solution of laundry soap, the use of acaricides - Sumiton, Actellika.|
|Brown spots on flowers, leaves.||Thrips||Treatment with insecticides - Fitoverm (least toxic), Isatrin, Actellic.|
|The formation of tubercles on the leaf surface.||Shields||Use a soapy solution. Processing is carried out twice with a weekly interval.|
|The appearance of uneven edges on the leaves, damage to the petals||Slug||Mechanical methods - the use of vegetable baits (slices of cucumber, carrots), the collection of pests. Pollination with spices - allspice, rosemary, cilantro, ground parsley. The use of insecticides - Mezurol, Meteldehyde.|
Viral diseases (for example: mosaic - the first sign of yellowing of the foliage), to which the ornamental plant is exposed, are incurable. The affected flower must be destroyed.
The hybrid representative of the Phalaenopsis orchid symbolizes love, beauty, family coziness. He is the talisman of male impotence. Unpretentious in the care of phalaenopsis, with proper attention, delight with its flowering almost all year round.