Geranium, otherwise a crane, is a plant of the genus of the Geranium family. It is a popular plant used in the design of the plot in the garden.
Characteristics of garden geraniums
Garden geranium - a beautiful lush compact bush, is a grassy perennial. The height of the plant is diverse: there are both undersized and tall species.
The leaves are dense, carved lace. There are various sizes and shapes - they have rounded or pointed edges.
The plant's buds reach a diameter of up to 5 cm and consist of approximately 5 petals. The color of geranium flowers has a wide color palette. All shades of red, white, pink, and purple are found. Plants of the geranium family have a pleasant sweet aroma.
The main advantage of this species is its health: the flower is immune to drought, unpretentious in care and has excellent immunity.
Difference of garden geranium from room
Indoor geranium or pelargonium was combined into one group with geranium in 1738, despite the fact that they are genetically different. Outwardly, they are very similar, but have many differences. For example, plants belong to the same family, but they cannot interbreed with each other.
The table discusses other distinguishing features.
|Habitat||The temperate climate zone is the Mediterranean region, Belarus, Central Asia, the regions of the mountain Caucasus, Siberia and the Far East.||Mostly South Africa.|
|Weather susceptibility||It feels great in open ground all year round, very frost-resistant.||Heat-loving, wintering exclusively room. In the open ground can only be in the summer season.|
|Seeds||"Geranius" from the Greek language - "crane". Not for nothing - the seeds, by their appearance, resemble the head of this bird.||"Pelargonium" in translation - "stork". Similarly.|
|Flowers||Consist of 5-8 petals of the correct form, they, in turn, form inflorescences in which there are about 5 such flowers.||Petals of various irregular shapes form flowers of multiple inflorescences.|
|Stamens||To 10.||Up to 7.|
|Color||There are no red shades in nature.||There are no blue ones.|
Types and varieties of geraniums
Recently, the popularity of using plants in landscape design has been increasing due to its interesting appearance and properties, such as frost resistance and unpretentiousness.
There are about 400 varieties of geraniums. There is a conditional division according to the height of the bush: low to 50 cm, high - over 50 cm. Generally, 4 large species can be distinguished in Russia:
- large-rhizome crane;
- dark brown crane;
- South European Crane;
- fluffy geranium.
|View||Description||Varieties and hybrids|
|Marsh||Perennial with branchy short roots. The height of the bush is about 30-70 cm. Buds in the girth of 4 cm, 2-3 in the inflorescence, mainly having a lilac color. Flowering occurs in the first two summer months. It prefers moisture, therefore it grows in areas with swamps, meadows and forests. The habitat is European Russia, Belarus, Ukraine. The plant is valued for its healing qualities: help with colic, ear diseases, gout, diseases of the genitourinary system, rheumatism; heart rate normalization.||-|
|Gorgeous||A very beautiful spreading shrub of about 60 cm. Blue flowers form inflorescences of 2-3 flowers. Flowering can be observed all summer months. The most interesting in this form are leaves. They have a fluffy dissected shape and have an interesting feature - in the fall they turn from green to red.||Alan Mayes, Blue Blood, Mrs. Kendall Clark, Rosemoor.|
|Georgian||Unpretentious bush growing up to 80 cm in height. You can meet a plant in nature in the meadows of the Caucasus. The roots are noteworthy - they contain natural black coloring pigments. Volumetric buds of purple hue with dark spots. The flowering period is from July to September. The foliage is fluffy with a very interesting polygonal sharp-shaped greenish-grayish.||-|
|Red brown||Carpathian bush up to 80 cm high with large basal leaves. They have an interesting shape and pattern: dark purple stripes appear on a grayish tint by the end of summer. The plant has small purple flowers, whose petals with wavy edges, bloom in July-August.||Langthorn's Blue, Lily Lovell, Samobor, Album.|
|Blood red||A hemispherical shrub about 60 cm high. A distinctive feature is large single flowers, fuchsia or purple. It blooms all summer. The leaves of the plant in autumn will change color to red.|
This type of geranium has healing properties and is used for: viruses, fungi, infections, germs and bleeding. Tinctures are often used.
|Alan Bloom, Apfelbute, Ankum's Pride, Canon Miles, Elke, Nana, Prostratum.|
|Forest||Shrub 80 cm tall with purple flowers. Flowering is very short, only 3 weeks starting in May or June. In the wild grows in Western Siberia, Central Asia, Europe.||Mayflower, Album, Birch Lilac.|
|Meadow||The plant develops only in well-lit areas of Eurasia. It has large flowers of various colors: from red to blue, from blue to purple. Monthly flowering begins in June.|
It has a green coloring pigment. It is used in medicine as a sedative, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agent.
Algera Double, Cluden Sapphire, Ilja, Splish Splash.
Jonson's Blue, Brookside, Kashmir Blue, Orion.
|Small stamen or Armenian||Perennial reaching 1.2 m with long leaves. Their color changes from the time of the year: in the summer they turn green, in the spring they turn crimson, and in the fall they turn red. The plant blooms in June, flowers are small fuchsia.||Bressingham Flair, Ann Folkard.|
|Flat||A spherical-shaped perennial shrub, growing up to half a meter and in girth up to 1 m. It has pubescent green leaves and purple flowers.||-|
|Endress or Perenayan||Due to its geographical growth - a bush with long roots, sprawling, half a meter high. Large green leaves about 10 cm long and small pink flowers. He loves drained soil, partial shade.||Beholder's Eye, Wargrave Pink, Betty Catchpole.|
|Himalayan||It has developed roots, the height of the bush is not more than 60 cm. Dissected leaves with large buds in girth up to 5 cm. They are painted in colors from blue to violet, with red veins. Flowering from late spring to fall. He loves loose and drained soil. You can meet in the territories of Afghanistan, Tibet, Tajikistan and the Himalayan meadows.||Baby blue, Gravetye, Irish Blue, Plenum, and Johnson's Blue and Rozanne hybrids.|
|Dalmatian||Low bush up to 15 cm high and 50 cm wide with small flowers of soft pink color. It blooms in summer. The leaves are dissected in shape, turn red with a strong decrease in temperature. It grows in Montenegro and Albania.||-|
|Ash||Small bush with bright pink flowers. Flowering lasts only 20-40 days from the first month of spring. The leaves are painted in a grayish-green color, have a dissected shape, about 5 cm in length. They live in Albanian and Balkan meadows.||Ballerina, Splendens, Subcaulescens.|
|Renard||Perennial plant with a thick rhizome, growth of about 30 cm. It has pimpled leaves of olive color and white flowers with purple gaps. The homeland of this geranium is the Caucasus.||-|
|Roberta||Half a meter tall plant. Foliage is similar to fern leaves, in autumn they can change color to orange. The flowers are small light pink. The stem is covered with small reddish hairs. The species is notable for the fact that it grows quietly in the highlands, prefers the shadow. It grows in the forests of Eurasia, North America.||-|
|Wallich||The low ground cover grows to 30 m in height and in width up to half a meter. It has long leaves and large purple flowers, with a white core. The flowering period is from mid-summer to mid-autumn. It is found in northeast Afghanistan, Kashmir.||Buxton's Variety, Buxton's Blue, Syabru, Crystal Lake.|
|Large-rhizome or Balkan||Spherical undersized shrub with branchy roots. The variety is indulgent to lighting. The leaves are round and divided into parts. Saturated green color turns red in the fall. Flowers come in bright colors: pink, purple. The plant has a pleasant smell. The habitat of the Alps and the Balkans. Its roots can be used as a natural flavor in cooking. Geranium oil has a healing and calming property.||Bevan's Variety, Czakor, Lohfelden, Ingwersen's Variety, Insversen, Spessart, Variegata.|
|Cantabrian||A hybrid obtained from crossing Dalmatian and large-rhizome geranium. The miniature perennial has glossy leaves and small flowers of white, pink and purple.||Westray, St. Ole, Biokovo, Cambridge.|
Propagation of garden perennial geraniums
Crane breeding can be done in two ways:
- Seed - a laborious and difficult method. As a result, it turns out that some geraniums are not able to produce their own seeds, and some produce themselves and disperse them. For propagation in this way, it is necessary to choose the most attractive species that will bloom only after a year.
- Vegetative or cuttings - a method of dividing part of the root. It is recommended to carry out this procedure in the spring. First you need to prepare the soil: add compost and peat fertilizers. Next, in such a soil should be planted sprout. In the future, it is necessary to ensure regular watering, and a month after planting, feed the seedling.
Planting and caring for garden geraniums
Landing is best done in autumn or spring. It is necessary to prepare the soil: add peat or humus. The earth needs to be watered and mulched. Before planting, divide the roots of the plant. When planting them, it is recommended to observe a distance between them of approximately 30 cm.
Growing undemanding geraniums is not difficult. Once a year, it is enough to feed the earth with mineral fertilizers. Water regularly, maintaining average humidity. It is well adjacent to other plants. The flower is resistant to diseases and pests, as it has a repulsive smell for them.
Geranium is a frost-resistant plant.
It can be safely left in the open ground for the entire winter period. To do this, you just need to cut off the extra shoots and leaves.
However, indoor geranium, pelargonium, does not tolerate low temperatures, and therefore it is better to send it to insulated rooms for the winter. For this, a glass balcony or loggia, in which the temperature does not fall below + 12 ... +15 ° C, is optimal. That is why it is recommended to plant geraniums in flower pots, pots or flowerpots, so that before the cold season. Do not dig it out or transplant it from open ground.
Pests and diseases
Thanks to its aroma, geranium repels pests from itself and neighboring plants. If, nevertheless, the pests hit it, it is necessary to cut the bush under the spine, and the cut parts need to be burned outside the flower bed so that the earth does not become infected. Mostly diseases occur during heavy rains.
The most common pests of geraniums:
- Aphids - get rid by spraying the bush with a specific solution.
- Goose - pose a hazard for a week, after this period the poisons erode. To fight it is enough to collect it with your hands from the plant.
- Whitefly - use the drug "Spark".
Geranium has another ailment - the leaves turn yellow. This occurs with insufficient moisture. If the foliage crumbles, therefore, the plant lacks lighting.
Mr. Summer resident advises: useful properties of geranium and contraindications
In folk medicine, geranium is used in the form of decoctions, tinctures and oils that enhance human health.
From the roots of the plant, you can get geranium oil, which has healing properties and contraindications. The oil is rich in glucose, fructose, tannins, vitamins. It is used for viral diseases, inflammation, fatigue and nervous disorders.
Take caution in allergies. It must be remembered that self-medication is not worth it, use substances based on garden geraniums with health benefits should be recommended by a doctor. Also, decoctions are best not to drink for the elderly.