Strawberries, a delicious and healthy berry, are grown in almost all garden areas. To get a decent harvest every year, you need to make some efforts. Proper nutrition of strawberries at all stages of development is included in the list of necessary procedures for caring for it.
When is it better to feed strawberries
Strawberries will delight with large and tasty berries, if fed in a timely manner. Plants need a balanced application of mineral fertilizers containing nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, as well as organic fertilizers:
- in spring:
- fertilize the wells with rotted organics before planting new bushes;
- make mineral fertilizers for existing plants after the appearance of the first leaves;
- bushes with formed ovaries are fed;
- in summer:
- they feed the fruiting bushes so that they better survive the winter;
- in the fall:
- fertilize the beds with organic matter for spring plantings;
- fertilize under planted rosettes from mustaches of uterine bushes.
You should not neglect complex mineral fertilizers designed specifically for this agricultural crop.
Photo Gallery: Strawberry Fertilizer
- Organic fertilizer for strawberries Fertika is used for main application and top dressing
- Organomineral fertilizer for strawberry WMD includes, in addition to NPK, humates and trace elements
- Strawberries respond better to complex mineral fertilizers in spring
During the autumn planting, a handful of compost is added to each well and a tablespoon of superphosphate or a handful of ash is added.
Separately, it is worth mentioning the mulch. In addition to its main functions - protection against weeds and droughts in summer and from cold in winter - it can also serve as fertilizer after overheating of the mulching material during the winter. Mulch allows you to accumulate a fertile layer in the soil if organic matter (sawdust, peat, straw, needles) is used to cover the beds between strawberry bushes, but not synthetic materials (black spanbond).
Photo Gallery: Strawberry Mulching
- You can’t use fresh sawdust to mulch strawberries; they take nitrogen from the soil
- When mulching strawberries with straw, you can mix it with rotted manure
- Spunbond is best used for mulching only on fertile soils.
It is advisable not to use fresh sawdust as mulch - they will deplete the soil (additional nitrogen fertilizers will be required), give preference to rotted sawmill waste. For acidic soil, a mixture of straw with rotted manure is suitable.
Strawberry dressing in spring
The first spring dressing is carried out, focusing on the appearance of strawberry bushes. As soon as the leaf outlet comes to life and young leaves appear, fertilizers can be applied.
During this period, foliar top dressing of actively growing leaves is effective. It should be carried out after watering on a dry day. The lower surface of the sheet absorbs 10 times more fertilizer.
Strawberry dressing in summer
The second top dressing is carried out at the end of summer, after the bushes finish fruiting. This is necessary for newly formed roots and the laying of new flower buds. It can be:
- 2 tablespoons of nitrophosphate and 1 teaspoon of potassium sulfate;
- 2 tablespoons of potassium nitrate;
- 100 g of ash.
Data are based on dilution per ten-liter bucket. The finished solution is poured under the bushes.
Strawberry dressing in the fall
Autumn dressing is carried out in mid-September. The future harvest will depend on how depleted the bushes regenerate after picking the berries. Nitrogen is excluded from autumn dressings so as not to provoke plant growth.
The use of organic fertilizers is encouraged - they, while nourishing the plant, at the same time improve the structure of the soil.
When laying chicken droppings, manure, ash and green fertilizers in the fall, they expect to get the maximum effect from their use in the spring:
- chicken manure in its composition contains uric acid, it is very concentrated. Dry litter is placed between the rows of strawberries (not more than 2 kg per 1 sq. M). In the spring, after the snow melts, it will begin to gradually soak and the plant will receive nitrogen top dressing;
- fresh manure can also be placed in the aisles. During the winter, he crosses, and in the spring feeds strawberries with nitrogen and will serve as a mulch;
- green fertilizer in the form of chopped stems and leaves of any green manure or legumes (lupine) is laid out in the aisles, a little sprinkled with earth on top;
- wood ash (a source of potassium and phosphorus) is scattered between the bushes, it is enough to add 150 g per 1 sq. m
Bird droppings and fresh manure are laid out on the soil after the first frost.
Strawberries also respond well to fertilizing with mineral fertilizers. In the fall apply:
- potassium sulfate at the rate of 1 teaspoon per 10 liters of water,
- superphosphate - 10 g per 10 liters of water.
A week before the use of superphosphate on acidic soils, a deoxidizing agent (dolomite flour, lime, chalk) must be added.
What threatens strawberries with a lack or excess of fertilizers
Lack of nutrients and their overabundance are clearly reflected in the appearance of the strawberry bush:
- a lack of nitrogen leads to poor development of the vegetative mass, its excess reduces the yield of berries and affects their taste. The introduction of nitrogen in the fall negatively affects the frost resistance of the plant;
- lack of potassium makes it difficult to absorb nutrient solutions, strawberries are sick. Excessive amounts of potassium interfere with the absorption of nitrogen, the plant ceases to develop;
- phosphorus is necessary to maintain photosynthesis in plants and increase their resistance. Excess phosphorus interferes with the absorption of potassium: strawberries quickly age without bringing a long-awaited crop.
Photo gallery: how to determine the lack of nutrients by leaves of wild strawberry
- Lack of nitrogen slows the growth of the strawberry bush, the leaves turn light
- With a lack of phosphorus, strawberry growth slows down, the leaves turn yellow and curl.
- If there is not enough potassium, the tips of the strawberry leaves begin to dry out.
Harvest of the current year directly depends on how to feed strawberries in the spring. Take a bite in the fall - lay the foundation for a rich harvest next year.
Fertilizers for strawberries
If seedlings were planted in the spring in the holes, seasoned with organic matter (humus or compost) and phosphorus-potassium fertilizers (ash, superphosphate), it does not need additional feeding.
Additional fertilizing with nitrogen fertilizers is not recommended. Excess nitrogen can cause rotting of berries.
Seedlings planted in autumn are fed in the spring according to general rules. In garden plots, nitrogen, potash and phosphorus fertilizers are successfully used, as well as recipes based on the use of drugs purchased at the pharmacy and food products.
Urea (urea), containing about 46% nitrogen, is available in the form of balls and granules. It is highly soluble in water, it is used in the form of nutrient solutions or in dry form. Urea is well kept in the ground and is not washed out by precipitation (unlike ammonium nitrate).
Urea is used as follows:
- granules are buried in the ground at 4-5 cm to prevent the evaporation of ammonia. After that, water abundantly.
- Nutrient solutions are used for root and foliar top dressing.
Foliar top dressing is recommended when the plant visually shows signs of a lack of nitrogen. They quickly help to cope with the problem.
Top dressing is carried out twice:
- the first root dressing of urea is carried out in the spring to activate plant growth;
- the second root top dressing is carried out at the beginning of August after berry intake, in order to promote the growth of mustaches.
The composition of the solution in both cases is the same: 1 tablespoon is dissolved in a bucket of water (10 l), half a liter of solution is poured under each bush.
Urea must not be applied simultaneously with ash, chalk, lime. The beneficial properties of these substances are lost in the interaction.
During flowering and fruiting, strawberries need potassium. Ash is safe from the point of view of ecology, it contains phosphorus, potassium and other useful elements. In addition, some pests do not withstand its neighborhood.
Ashes are introduced into the hole during planting; it can be used for top dressing throughout the growing season. Recommended application rates:
- in dry form - no more than 3 glasses per 1 sq. m;
- for liquid top dressing - 1 cup per 10 liters of warm water, leave for a day, pour half a liter of solution under each bush.
Yeast is a living organism, a fungus. They contain a large number of useful micro and macro elements. Using yeast as a fertilizer, we provide strawberries with the substances necessary for its full development and good fruiting.
Yeast introduced into the soil contributes to the faster decomposition of organic matter. The use of this fertilizer is most effective on organic rich soils in warm weather.
The recipe for a yeast solution for feeding strawberries:
- In a three-liter jar we pour water not to the top (approximately 2.7 liters).
- Add 100 g of baker's yeast dissolved in a glass of warm water.
- Add half a glass of sugar to the solution.
- We put the jar in a warm place, covering the neck with gauze.
The solution will be ready for use when the fermentation process is over.
For the preparation of yeast dressing use 1 cup of solution in 10 liters of water. Under each bush, it is advisable to pour 1 liter of the prepared mixture.
Feeding with yeast is carried out 3 times per season:
- during flowering;
- during fruiting;
- after harvesting.
Watering strawberries during transplantation with yeast top dressing stimulates root formation.
Yeast actively absorbs potassium and calcium from the soil. After top dressing, be sure to add ash to the root space.
In haste, you can prepare a nutrient solution of dry yeast. Cooking Options:
- dissolve a teaspoon of dry yeast in 1 liter of water, add 1 teaspoon of sugar, leave for 2 hours. Dilute the finished mixture with 5 l of water and use for feeding;
- in a bucket of water add 10 g of dry yeast and 2 tablespoons of sugar, stir, insist. To prepare a nutrient solution in 5 l of water, use 1 l of the mixture.
Video: feeding strawberries with yeast
Ammonium chloride (ammonia solution) is sold in a pharmacy.
The use of ammonia for strawberries is obvious, this cheap nitrogen fertilizer does not accumulate nitrates in the soil and helps fight pests and diseases:
- contains nitrogen;
- scares away garden ants, aphids, nematodes;
- saves from rot.
Do not use ammonia in the background of other nitrogen fertilizers. Processing with a solution of ammonia is prohibited after the appearance of berries, so only two top dressings are carried out:
- early spring (40 ml of ammonia per 10 liters of water);
- after flowering (second spring dressing) it is better to use a less concentrated solution - 3 tablespoons of ammonia per 10 liters of water.
Liquid soap is added to the solution (can be prepared from a piece of laundry soap) so that it sticks better to the plant. Strawberries are watered from a watering can with large holes, the solution should fall on the leaves.
Minerals, salts of nitric acid, are called saltpeters. In agricultural technology often used:
- ammonium nitrate;
- potassium nitrate;
- calcium nitrate.
Photo gallery: types of nitrate
- Potassium nitrate contains potassium along with nitrogen.
- Calcium, which is part of calcium nitrate, allows the plant to use nitrogen more efficiently
- Ammonium nitrate is used as a source of nitrogen.
Ammonium nitrate is often used as a source of nitrogen, potassium nitrate allows you to add potassium to the soil. The use of nitrate has its advantages and disadvantages. The advantages include:
- high nitrogen content (up to 35% in ammonium nitrate, up to 15% in the other two);
- quick dissolution in water;
- fast assimilation;
- the ability to use on frozen soil;
The main disadvantages:
- quickly washed out by sediment from the soil;
- can not be mixed with superphosphate, deoxidants, urea;
- can not be used for foliar dressing;
- risk of spontaneous combustion when mixed with peat and straw.
Feeding with ammonium nitrate is allowed to carry out only from 2 years of life strawberries. Options:
- in the early spring, saltpeter is simply scattered on frozen soil or snow;
- if the soil has thawed, saltpeter is introduced between the rows into grooves with a depth of 10 cm and sprinkled with earth, the norm is 100 g per 10 square meters. m;
- for watering, 20 g of nitrate is diluted in 10 l of water and gently watered under the root.
The solution should not fall on the leaves, this can lead to severe burns.
Potassium nitrate contains 44% potassium and 13% nitrogen. It can be used with the second spring top dressing - 1 tablespoon per 10 liters of water.
Calcium nitrate (15% nitrogen + 22% calcium) is used for root dressing only before flowering - 25 g per 10 liters of water. This nitrate does not acidify the soil, it can be used on sod-podzolic soils.
Onion husk contains many useful substances - trace elements, vitamins, flanoids. It is used in garden plots to control pests, in addition, the use of a husk decoction strengthens and accelerates the development of the root system.
Quercetin contained in onion peel has bacteriostatic activity.
The husk when caring for strawberries is used in different ways:
- as a mulch, it will additionally scare away pests and protect against diseases;
- when transplanting seedlings, several scales placed in the planting hole will provide protection from pests and diseases;
- when watering with a solution of husk, bacteria in the soil are neutralized, the root system is stimulated.
To prepare the solution / broth, 4 cups of husk are poured into 10 liters of water, heated to a boil and left under the lid until completely cooled. The broth should be used within 1 day. When watering, 2 liters of broth is added to a bucket of water.
A solution (3%) of hydrogen peroxide is used in the garden to protect plants from diseases and to saturate the soil with oxygen. Atomic oxygen cleans the roots of dying particles and promotes better absorption of nutrients from the soil.
Depending on the frequency of use, the solution is made in different concentrations:
- weak - for regular use (weekly) (10 ml per 1 liter of water);
- higher - for rare use (20 ml per 1 liter of water).
Water, in which hydrogen peroxide was mixed, resembles rainwater in its composition.
Organic fertilizers (manure belongs to them) fill light soils with biological mass and improve the structure of heavy soils, making them more loose. Strawberries respond well to the application of manure.
Fresh manure contains many bacteria and weed seeds. The high temperature generated during its combustion will have a detrimental effect on the roots of fertilized plants. When planting, you need to use only rotted manure.
For feeding during the active growth of strawberry bushes, a mullein solution is used:
- First, a concentrate is prepared: a quarter bucket (10 l) is filled with manure, add water to the top and insist for several days until the specific ammonia odor disappears.
- Then, based on the concentrate, a solution for irrigation is prepared: 1 liter of the concentrate is diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 4. For fertilizer 1 square. m beds will need 10 liters of solution.
- Strawberry bushes are watered with mullein solution during the formation of the ovaries, trying not to fall on the leaves.
In late autumn, fresh manure can be spread between rows of strawberries (3 kg per 1 sq. M).
Iodine is a chemical substance, halogen, a strong oxidizing agent. It reacts with complex chemical compounds located in the earth, while producing oxygen. Therefore, the beneficial effect on strawberries when used is similar to the effect of the use of hydrogen peroxide:
- detrimental effect on infection;
- stimulates the development of the root system.
The activity of iodine strongly depends on the composition of water and soil, climatic conditions. By itself (as a trace element) iodine is not of special importance for plants.
Root top dressing of strawberries with iodine is carried out by the method of watering or spraying:
- for the prevention of powdery mildew and gray rot and in order to stimulate growth in early spring, watered with a solution of 15 drops of iodine per 10 liters of water;
- sprayed for prevention before fruiting with a solution of a lower concentration so as not to burn the plant: 3 drops of iodine per 10 liters of water.
Root dressing is additionally carried out in the summer after harvesting.
The microelement boron stimulates the formation of ovaries and prevents their falling. Its lack negatively affects the root system. Boron deficiency is easy to eliminate, it is very well absorbed by foliar top dressing. An easily accessible source of boron is 3% liquid boric acid or a powder, which can be purchased at a pharmacy.
Processing 4 times during flowering with an interval of 3-4 days allows you to get a good crop of large berries. Strawberries are sprayed with a solution of boric acid, for the preparation of which the powder (5 g) is dissolved in 1 l of hot water, and then mixed with 10 l of water.
Signs of an overdose of potash fertilizers
Excessive plant nutrition is also fraught with negative consequences, as well as insufficient nutrition. Excess potassium leads to disruption of the vegetation process. Plant growth slows down, young leaves become smaller. The photo shows a bush of strawberries, which were uncontrollably fed with potassium, periodically pouring ash on it from the stove.
Excess potassium prevents the flow of nitrogen into the plant. Leaves brighten, internodes lengthen. If you do not take measures to save the dying bush in time, the leaves of it will begin to die.
Recommendation: it is necessary to spill the soil once with a large amount of water (12-15 liters per 1 sq. M) in order to wash excess potassium from the surface layers. If possible, it is advisable to transplant the plants after spilling to another place.
Strawberries gratefully respond to the care of her. The article provides various feeding options that will help you choose the best way for your conditions. It is advisable to try all types of fertilizers and, depending on the result, make your final choice. The main thing is not to overdo it. It is better to apply fertilizer in a weaker concentration than to overfeed and thereby destroy the plant.